Why is thorium series called 4n?
In case of thorium series, the stable nucleus is lead-208. Since alpha decay represents the disintegration of a parent nucleus to a daughter through the emission of the nucleus of a helium atom (which contains four nucleons), there are only four decay series. As a result, the thorium series is known as the 4n series.
What is 4n 2 radioactive decay series?
The 4n+2 chain of uranium-238 is called the “uranium series” or “radium series”. Beginning with naturally occurring uranium-238, this series includes the following elements: astatine, bismuth, lead, polonium, protactinium, radium, radon, thallium, and thorium.
Which series is radioactive in nature?
The basic natural radioactive elements are included into four radioactive series as shown in Table I. These are: thorium series, neptunium series, uranium series and uranium-actinium series. All of radioactive series articles are bond by irreversible reciprocal transformations.
What kind of nucleus does a radioactive isotope have?
Radioactive isotopes have an unstable nucleus that decays or emits excess energy or radiation until the nucleus becomes stable. They can be naturally occurring or artificial isotopes of an element. Are you a student or a teacher?
What kind of radiation does an unstable isotope emit?
If an isotope has an unstable nucleus that breaks down to emit radiation, then these are what we call radioactive isotopes, also known as radioisotopes. Radioactive isotopes have an unstable nucleus that decays or emits excess energy or radiation until the nucleus becomes stable.
Which is the most stable radioactive isotope of lead?
Thorium-232 undergoes successive decay to form the most stable radioactive isotopes of lead with mass number 208. Therefore the entire decay chain of thorium-232 involves six alpha and four beta emission. This is the 4n radioactive decay series.
Are there any other radioactive series like th 90 232?
Two other radioactive series similar to the one just described occur in nature. One of these starts with the isotope Th 90 232 and involves 10 successive stages, while the other starts with U 92 235 and involves 11 stages. Each of the three series produces a different stable isotope of lead.