What is VSMC proliferation?
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is an important component of vessel wall remodelling in response to injury, for example, after angioplasty or vein grafting, and during atherosclerosis formation.
Why do smooth muscle cell proliferation in atherosclerosis?
The earliest changes that precede the formation of lesions of atherosclerosis take place in the endothelium (EC), with resultant endothelial dysfunction. The EC-induced injury can result in increased lipid permeability, macrophage recruitment, formation of foam cells, and recruitment of T-lymphocytes and platelet.
What does proliferation of smooth muscle cells mean?
Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) represents an important event in vascular lesion formation. Despite the common belief that growth factors contribute to the development of the atherosclerotic plaque, until now there has been no direct evidence for a role of mitogens in the development of arterial lesions.
How do you increase the size of your smooth muscles?
Smooth muscle can be stimulated by pacesetter cells, by the autonomic nervous system, by hormones, spontaneously, or by stretching. The fibers in some smooth muscle have latch-bridges, cross-bridges that cycle slowly without the need for ATP; these muscles can maintain low-level contractions for long periods.
What is smooth muscle hypertrophy?
Comment: Bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy (Figure 1) is characterized by increased size of smooth muscle cells and thickening of the smooth muscle layer around airways. It is a feature of airway wall remodeling in disease states resembling chronic asthma.
What diseases can atherosclerosis cause?
When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries close to your heart, you may develop coronary artery disease, which can cause chest pain (angina), a heart attack or heart failure.
What happens to smooth muscle cells during the formation of atherosclerotic plaque?
Abstract. Current knowledge suggests that intimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in native atherosclerotic plaque derive mainly from the medial arterial layer. During this process, SMCs undergo complex structural and functional changes giving rise to a broad spectrum of phenotypes.
What are vascular smooth muscle cells ( VSMCs ) in atherosclerosis?
Abstract:The historical view of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerosis is that aberrant proliferation of VSMCs promotes plaque formation, but that VSMCs in advanced plaques are entirely beneficial, for example preventing rupture of the fibrous cap.
How is atherosclerosis different from other types of arteriosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, but the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Atherosclerosis refers to the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls (plaque), which can restrict blood flow. The plaque can burst, triggering a blood clot.
Is the proliferation of VSMCs in advanced plaques beneficial?
proliferation of VSMCs promotes plaque formation, but that VSMCs in advanced plaques are entirely beneficial, for example preventing rupture of the fibrous cap. However, this view has been based on ideas that there is a homogenous population of VSMCs within the plaque, that can be identified separate from other plaque cells
When does atherosclerosis cause a heart attack or stroke?
You usually won’t have atherosclerosis symptoms until an artery is so narrowed or clogged that it can’t supply adequate blood to your organs and tissues. Sometimes a blood clot completely blocks blood flow, or even breaks apart and can trigger a heart attack or stroke.