What is brachiocephalic vein stenosis?
Brachiocephalic vein stenosis refers to a narrowing of the brachiocephalic vein. It is commonly seen in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Which vein has highest risk of stenosis?
Conclusion: CVS is highly prevalent among studied HD patients, particularly in the presence of suggestive clinical signs. The number of HD catheter placements and subclavian vein utilization for dialysis access impose a significantly higher risk of CVS.
How is venous stenosis treated?
Balloon angioplasty is the therapy of choice for symptomatic venous stenosis. Venous access can be established via the antecubital vein, dialysis fistula, or common femoral vein. Conservative balloon sizing should be adopted at the start because these vessels have less muscular tissue than the arterial system.
What type of pain do venous stenosis patients generally experience?
Leg pain, numbness, and cramps. Buttock pain, and tight muscles in the buttock and hip area. Hip pain. Calf pain and tightness, especially behind the knee.
Where is innominate vein?
The brachiocephalic veins also referred to as the innominate veins, are large venous structures located within the thorax and originate from the union of the subclavian vein with the internal jugular vein. The left and right brachiocephalic vein join to form the superior vena cava on the right side of the upper chest.
What is SVC medical term?
The superior vena cava is a major vein in your upper body. It carries blood from your head, neck, upper chest, and arms to the heart. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) happens when the superior vena cava is partially blocked or compressed. Cancer is usually the main cause of SVCS.
How do you prevent central vein stenosis?
Early placement of an arteriovenous access prior to initiating dialysis can reduce the need for central venous catheters and thus reduce the prevalence of central vein stenosis.
What is central venous stenosis?
Central vein stenosis (CVS) is a common complication of the central venous catheter (CVC) placement. The prevalence of CVS has mostly been studied in those who present with symptoms such as swelling of the extremity, neck and breast. CVS compromises arteriovenous access and can be resistant to treatment.
Can venous stenosis be reversed?
In the latter (ie, venous abnormalities as a consequence of intracranial pressure), elevated intracranial CSF pressure could lead to a secondary narrowing of the sinus lumen by compression, which can be reversed by lumbar puncture or shunt surgery procedures.
Is Chronic venous insufficiency a disability?
Chronic Venous Insufficiency has been determined by the Social Security Administration (SSA) to be one of the disabling conditions that can qualify a person to receive Social Security Disability benefits.
What causes narrowing of the brachiocephalic vein?
The presentation can be variable ranging from facial swelling, retrograde blood flow in to the jugular vessels and cerebral venous hypertension 2. Brachiocephalic vein stenosis can originate from multiple causes: Brachiocephalic vein re-narrowing is common following stent placement.
Who is most at risk for brachiocephalic vein stenosis?
It is commonly seen in chronic hemodialysis patients. A study conducted in Chinese population shows a prevalence of stenosis in hemodialysis patients was 30-50% 3. The presentation can be variable ranging from facial swelling, retrograde blood flow in to the jugular vessels and cerebral venous hypertension 2.
Can a brachiocephalic obstruction cause left arm stenosis?
Although brachiocephalic obstruction may result in asymmetric upper limb pressures, the additional presence of left subclavian artery stenosis in this patient obscured her diagnosis. Brachial pressures were equally low in both arms, and the suspicion of vascular disease was only raised after a comparison was made to lower extremity pressures.
How to diagnose brachiocephalic and left subclavian obstruction?
We report a patient with combined brachiocephalic and left subclavian obstruction with clinical manifestations of lightheadedness, syncope, and left-sided weakness who remained misdiagnosed essentially because of symmetrical pressures in the upper extremities. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis failed to provide symptomatic relief.