What drugs are used as osmotic diuretics?

What drugs are used as osmotic diuretics?

Osmotic Diuretics (Examples: Mannitol, Glycerin, Isosorbide, Urea) Osmotic diuretics are relatively inert substances; they do not directly interact with renal transport systems.

Is diuretics a drug class?

Diuretics are a class of drugs that increase the flow of urine (termed diuresis). Diuretics work by removing sodium and chloride from the body in the urine, and the sodium and chloride, in turn, draw excess water from the body.

What class of drug is mannitol?

Mannitol IV belongs to a class of drugs called Diuretics, Osmotic Agents.

What are the side effects of osmotic diuretics?

Common side effects of osmotic diuretics include:

  • Chest pain.
  • Congestive heart failure.
  • Hypotension (low blood pressure)
  • Phlebitis (inflammation of the vein)
  • Convulsions.
  • Chills.
  • Dizziness.
  • Headache.

How does mannitol affect blood pressure?

At large doses mannitol increases excretion of sodium and potassium. Initially, mannitol acutely raises plasma and extracellular osmolality, which leads to an increase in circulating blood volume. This leads to increase in stroke volume, cardiac output, and blood pressure.

Which diuretics are the strongest?

Loop diuretics (furosemide and bumetanide) are the most potent of the diuretics and are widely used in the treatment of pulmonary and systemic edema.

Are osmotic diuretics toxic?

Toxic levels can be decreased with osmotic diuretics (do not use furosemide), administration of saline, or dialysis. Renal toxicity is common with chronic lithium therapy.

Does mannitol affect blood pressure?

Mannitol is the most commonly used hyperosmotic agent in neurosurgery. Being an agent that increases intravascular volume by withdrawing water from the brain, it may cause significant changes in stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure.

How are Osmotic diuretics used in cardiac decompension?

Osmotic diuretics are used to lower intracranial pressure and for short-term reduction of intraocular pressure. These drugs also promote excretion of nephrotoxic substances such as cisplatin. Acutely, extracellular fluid volume expansion may occur, which is particularly undesirable for patients with cardiac decompensation.

What kind of diuretics are thiazide-like drugs?

Thiazide diuretics belong to a chemical class of drugs called sulfonamides. Thiazide-like diuretics have different chemical structure but work in the same mechanism as that of thiazide diuretics. This is among the most commonly used class of diuretics.

How are Osmotic diuretics used in the treatment of brain injury?

Osmotic diuretics, particularly mannitol, continue to be extremely useful in the treatment of severe brain injury. There is some concern, however, that mannitol’s role needs to be redefined in children with head injury.

How are potassium sparing diuretics used in medicine?

Potassium-sparing diuretics reduce sodium reabsorption at the distal tubule, thus decreasing potassium secretion. Potassium-sparing diuretics when used alone are rather weak, hence they are used most commonly in combination therapy with thiazide and loop diuretics.