What causes low sodium levels in newborns?

What causes low sodium levels in newborns?

Etiology of Neonatal Hyponatremia The most frequent cause of neonatal hyponatremia is hypovolemic dehydration caused by vomiting, diarrhea, or both. When fluid loses are replaced with fluids that have little or no sodium (eg, some juices), hyponatremia can result.

Which recreational drugs cause hyponatremia?

An increasingly common cause of hyponatremic encephalopathy in the outpatient setting is use of the recreational drug ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) [5]. In this issue of NDT, van Dijken et al. [6] report on the high incidence of hyponatremia in females using ecstasy.

What level of sodium is dangerously low?

Severe hyponatremia occurs when levels drop below 125 mEq/L. Health issues arising from extremely low sodium levels may be fatal. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder that doctors encounter. Research suggests that approximately 1.7 percent of people in the United States have the condition.

How do you fix low sodium levels?

Treatment for low blood sodium

  1. cutting back on fluid intake.
  2. adjusting the dosage of diuretics.
  3. taking medications for symptoms such as headaches, nausea, and seizures.
  4. treating underlying conditions.
  5. infusing an intravenous (IV) sodium solution.

Can low sodium cause altered mental status?

The most common manifestations of hyponatremia are CNS-related and include mental status changes such as lethargy, confusion, disorientation, and agitation. Other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and weakness can also occur. Severe hyponatremia may result in cerebral edema, encephalopathy and death.

What do you do for hyponatremia?

Options include:

  1. Intravenous fluids. Your doctor may recommend IV sodium solution to slowly raise the sodium levels in your blood.
  2. Medications. You may take medications to manage the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia, such as headaches, nausea and seizures.

Do opioids cause low sodium?

Opioid use can cause hyponatremia in patients independent of ADH.

When is hyponatremia considered a severe medical condition?

Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L and is considered severe when the serum level is below 125 mEq/L. Many medical illnesses, such as congestive heart failure, liver failure, renal failure, or pneumonia, may be associated with hyponatremia.

How is hyponatremia a symptom of MDMA use?

MDMA-induced hyponatremia occurs via multiple mechanisms; these include the induction of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), the encouragement to drink large amounts of water to prevent unpleasant side effects of the drug, and the tendency among those intoxicated to be involved in vigorous physical activity…

What is the formula for hyponatremia in MedCalc?

Hyponatremia Na + requirement (mmol) = total body water x (desired Na + – serum Na +) Rate of infusion (cc/hr) = Na + requirement (mmol) x 1000: infusate Na + (mmol/L) x time (hours)

When to start sodium correction for hyponatremia?

In patients with severe symptomatic hyponatremia, the rate of sodium correction should be 6 to 12 mEq per L in the first 24 hours and 18 mEq per L or less in 48 hours.