What are the markers for astrocytes?
Markers for mature astrocytes include aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member L1 (Aldh1L1), aldolase C (AldoC), glutamate transporter-1 (Glt1), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100b) and Aquaporin 4. Two types of astrocytes are currently recognized, although morphological studies suggest a greater diversity.
Is GFAP astrocyte specific?
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) belongs to class III intermediate filaments (IFs) and is specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of central nervous system astrocytes (AS). It acts as an astrocyte-specific marker.
How do you determine astrocytes?
Astrocytes are classically identified using histological analysis; many of these cells express the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Several forms of astrocytes exist in the central nervous system including fibrous (in white matter), protoplasmic (in grey matter), and radial.
What are protoplasmic astrocytes?
Protoplasmic astrocytes posses highly branched bushy processes and are widely distributed in the gray matter. They extend endfeet to blood vessels and enwrap them to form the glial limiting membrane, which is the outermost wall of the blood brain barrier (BBB). The functions of fibrous astrocytes are not clear.
What are markers in the brain?
Relevant brain tumor markers
|Synaptophysin||Neuronal marker, synaptic vesicle protein|
|Nestin||CNS stem cell marker, intermediate filament protein|
|FOXG1||Transcription factor involved in brain development|
|Sox2||Transcription factor involved in neural stem cell maintenance|
Where is aquaporin 4 found?
Tissue and cellular distribution. Aquaporin-4 is the most common aquaporin in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve. It is highly expressed in the human body primarily at the end-feet of astrocytes.
What does GFAP protein do?
The GFAP gene provides instructions for making a protein called glial fibrillary acidic protein. This protein is a member of the intermediate filament family of proteins. Intermediate filaments form networks that provide support and strength to cells.
What GFAP detects?
By showing that glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) can accurately determine the severity of a brain injury through a blood test, the research team working on this study, led by author David Okonkwo, M.D., Ph.
What is the function of astrocyte cells?
Astrocytes are the most numerous cell type within the central nervous system (CNS) and perform a variety of tasks, from axon guidance and synaptic support, to the control of the blood brain barrier and blood flow.
Where are astrocytes found in the body?
Astrocytes are star-shaped cells found in the brain. Similarly to other neuronal cells, astrocytes are comprised of synapses, or cell ends that allow for chemical and electrical communication between cells.
What are astrocytes responsible for?
They have a regulatory role of brain functions that are implicated in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, controlling blood–brain barrier permeability and maintaining extracellular homeostasis. Mature astrocytes also express some genes enriched in cell progenitors, suggesting they can retain proliferative potential.
Are there any markers that can label astrocytes?
Astrocytes possess different morphological characteristics depending on the cerebral region in which they are found. However, none of the current astrocytic markers can label all subpopulations successfully. Thus, identifying the appropriate marker for a specific scientific investigation is critical.
Which is a pan astrocyte marker in mice?
From this study, Aldh1l1, which encodes aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member L1 (ALDH1L1), emerged as a pan astrocyte marker and was confirmed with Aldh1l1 -EGFP reporter mice that fortuitously already existed 23.
Where are astrocytes found in the CNS?
1 Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. Astrocyte heterogeneity remains largely unknown in the CNS due to lack of specific astroglial markers. In this study, molecular identity of in vivo astrocytes was characterized in BAC ALDH1L1 and BAC GLT1 eGFP promoter reporter transgenic mice.
Is the ALDH1L1 promoter activated in astrocytes?
ALDH1L1 promoter is selectively activated in adult cortical and spinal cord astrocytes, indicated by the overlap of eGFP expression with ALDH1L1 and GFAP, but not with NeuN, APC, Olig2, IbaI, PDGFRα immunoreactivity in BAC ALDH1L1 eGFP reporter mice.