What are the 4 complexes found within the mitochondrial membrane?
Electron transport complexes I (NADH/ubiquinone oxidoreductase, blue), II (succinate dehydrogenase, pink), III (cytochrome c reductase, orange), IV (cytochrome c oxidase, green) and the mitochondrial ATP synthase (also known as complex V, tan) work together in oxidative phosphorylation to harness energy for the cell.
What oxa complex?
multisubunit protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane; responsible for insertion of proteins systhesized in the mitochondrial matrix into the inner membrane of the mitochondrion and assisting TIM complexes in inserting some types of protein into the inner mitochondrial membrane.
What is mitochondrial outer membrane permeability?
Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), also known as the mitochondrial outer membrane permeability, is one of two ways apoptosis (programmed cell death) can be activated. It is part of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, also known as the mitochondrial pathway.
What is the function of the TOM complex?
The TOM complex is responsible for a number of functions: first, it is responsible for the recognition of precursor proteins via cytosolic-faced receptor components; second, it is responsible for translocation of protein across the outer membrane via the Tom40 channel; and third, it mediates the transfer of proteins …
What does the outer membrane do in the mitochondria?
The mitochondrial outer membrane separates the intermembrane space from the cytosol. The whole exchange of metabolites, cations and information between mitochondria and the cell occurs through the outer membrane.
What separates the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria?
Mitochondria posses their own DNA and ribosomes. 6. Just like the chloroplast, the stroma separates the inner and outer membranes of the mito- chondria. ATP synthase pumps, by active transport, hydrogen ions back into the mitochondria matrix.
What is TIM22?
The TIM22 complex is responsible for the translocation and insertion of hydrophobic membrane proteins, including mitochondrial carrier proteins and translocase subunits (Tim17, Tim22 and Tim23).
What can pass through the outer mitochondrial membrane?
The mitochondrion is an organelle encompassed by two membranes (Figure 1). The high permeability of the outer membrane is mediated by VDAC, which is the most common protein in the outer membrane and is permeable to molecules of up to 5000 daltons in its open configuration.
Can NADH pass through the outer mitochondrial membrane?
NADH cannot penetrate mitochondrial membranes, and regeneration of NAD+ in the cytoplasm depends on the activities of the LDH reaction and a shuttle system that transfers reducing equivalents to mitochondria.
What is structure in Tom?
Components of the TOM complex. In mammals and fungi, TOM comprises seven components: three receptor proteins (Tom70, Tom22, and Tom20), a protein-conducting channel (Tom40), and three low-molecular-weight proteins (Tom7, Tom6 and Tom5) (for general review, see Pfanner et al., 2019).
Where are translocase proteins found in the mitochondria?
The translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) is a complex of proteins found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the mitochondria.
How is the translocase of the inner membrane facilitated?
Following protein entry into the matrix, the presequence is cleaved off by the matrix processing peptidase and the protein undergoes folding into an active conformation, facilitated by HSP60 . The TIM22 complex is responsible for mediating the integration of carrier preproteins into the inner membrane.
Why is membrane potential necessary for protein translocation?
The membrane potential is necessary for both insertion of the precursor into the carrier translocase and lateral release of the protein into the lipid phase of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which completes protein translocation.
Where is Tim44 located in the inner membrane?
Tim44 is only weakly associated with Tim23 and is located on the matrix side of the inner membrane. At the opening of the TIM17-23 complex, Tim44 recruits mitochondrial heat shock protein 70, which further mediates translocation of the precursor through ATP hydrolysis.