Is Burkholderia cepacia gram-negative?
Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. B cepacia is an organism of low virulence and is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital (eg, irrigation solutions, intravenous fluids).
Does Burkholderia cepacia grow on MacConkey Agar?
Burkholderia cepacia organisms grow well on standard solid media such as 5% sheep blood, chocolate, and MacConkey agars; in thioglycollate and brain-heart infusion broths; and in broth-based blood culture systems. On 5% sheep blood agar, B.
Is B. cepacia gram positive?
They are rod-shaped, free-living, motile Gram- negative bacteria ranging from 1.6- 3.2 μm. They have been found to possess multitrichous polar flagella as well as pili used for attachment. Burkholderia cepacia can be found in soil, water, and infected plants, animals, and humans (1).
How do you identify Burkholderia?
For the laboratory diagnosis of B. cepacia, we recommend parallel cultures on blood agar medium and selective agar plates. Further identification of colonies with a Burkholderia phenotype should be performed with the API 20NE test.
Why is B. cepacia so bad?
It colonizes in the lungs, causing infection and inflammation that slowly deteriorates lung function. It spreads (disseminates) throughout the body causing cepacia syndrome, an illness characterized by the rapid deterioration of the lungs. If left untreated, cepacia syndrome can lead to death within weeks.
How does E coli appear on MacConkey Agar?
Lactose ferments will stain pink while the nonlactose ferments will be clear colonies. Enteric bacteria will vary in appearance on this media depending on their ability to ferment lactose and sucrose fermentation. Escherichia coli will have a green metallic sheen.
Is Burkholderia aerobic or anaerobic?
Burkholderia cenocepacia is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium that belongs to a group of opportunistic pathogens displaying diverse environmental and pathogenic lifestyles.
How is Burkholderia cepacia diagnosed?
The best way to diagnose B. cepacia is to culture the sputum (a mixture of mucus and saliva coughed up from the respiratory tract). A culture will confirm if B. cepacia is present and, if so, which strain or strains you are dealing with.
How many Burkholderia species are there?
Burkholderia species form a monophyletic group within the Burkholderiales order of the Betaproteobacteria. Currently, the 48 validly named species can be distinguished from related genera (i.e. Paraburkholderia) and all other bacteria by conserved signature indels in a variety of proteins.
What kind of environment does Burkholderia cepacia live in?
Several Burkholderia species have been isolated from human clinical samples, but only Burkoldeia cepacia complex, B. gladioli , B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are generally recognized as human pathogens. They are found in water and soil and can survive for prolonged periods in moist environments.
What kind of pigment does Burkholderia cenocepacia produce?
Colonies are smooth and slightly raised; occasionally isolates are mucoid. Some strains of B. cenocepacia produce a yellow pigment (3%), brown pigment (14%) and a small percentage ( < 9%) are α- or β-hemolytic. It may take 3 days before the colonies are seen from respiratory tract specimens from CF patients.
What kind of infections can b.cepacia cause?
B. cepacia complex has long been recognized as an occasional opportunistic human pathogen, capable of causing a variety of infections, including bacteremia, urinary tract infection, peritonitis, and pneumonia in persons with underlying illness. Like cystic fibrosis (CF), they are particularly susceptible to infection.
Can a cystic fibrosis patient have a B cepacia complex?
B. cepacia complex is highly transmissible between cystic fibrosis patients and can be transferred from one CF patient to another in hospitals, health clinics, and social environments. They are a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in CF.