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How is the hydrogen ion gradient maintained?

How is the hydrogen ion gradient maintained?

The upper part of the ATP synthase complex rotates when a new hydrogen ion enters. Without a gradient, there is no more energy available to make ATP. In biological systems, however, a gradient is always maintained. The mitochondrial hydrogen ion gradient is generated as electrons pass through three membrane complexes.

What is the role of the H+ ions in chemiosmosis?

Chemiosmosis: In oxidative phosphorylation, the hydrogen ion gradient formed by the electron transport chain is used by ATP synthase to form ATP. Similarly, hydrogen ions in the matrix space can only pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane through a membrane protein called ATP synthase.

Where do the H+ ions come from in chemiosmosis?

During chemiosmosis, electron carriers like NADH and FADH donate electrons to the electron transport chain. The electrons cause conformation changes in the shapes of the proteins to pump H+ across a selectively permeable cell membrane.

What is H+ chemiosmosis?

Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane bound structure, down their electrochemical gradient. An example of this would be the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions (H+) across a membrane during cellular respiration or photosynthesis.

What is the purpose of the H+ gradient?

The proton gradient produced by proton pumping during the electron transport chain is used to synthesize ATP. Protons flow down their concentration gradient into the matrix through the membrane protein ATP synthase, causing it to spin (like a water wheel) and catalyze conversion of ADP to ATP.

What does the chloroplast use the hydrogen ion gradient for?

The hydrogen ion gradient created by the electron transport chain is utilized by ATP synthase to create ATP from ADP and Pi. This is similar to the way ATP is synthesized in the mitochondria. ATP, NADPH, and molecular oxygen are the final, vital, products of photosynthesis.

What is the purpose of chemiosmosis?

What is chemiosmosis? In biology, chemiosmosis refers to the process of moving ions (e.g. protons) to the other side of the membrane resulting in the generation of an electrochemical gradient that can be used to drive ATP synthesis.

What is Chemiosmotic gradient?

The removal of protons from the matrix and deposition of protons in the intermembrane space creates a concentration difference of protons across the inner membrane. This is called the chemiosmotic gradient. As the gradient builds up, more and more energy is required to push protons across.

What can the H+ gradient be used and why?

How the proton (H+) gradient is used to make ATP. The process through which proton H+ gradient makes ATP is called chemiosmosis. It involves the electrons moving energetically downhill, the complexes then capture the released energy and uses it to pump H+ ions from the matrix to the intermembrane space.

What is the purpose of a hydrogen ion H +) gradient in photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

A chemiosmotic gradient causes hydrogen ions to flow back across the mitochondrial membrane into the matrix, through ATP synthase, producing ATP. When ATP from glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle are added, a total of 38 ATP result from aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose.

How does the removal of hydrogen ions contribute to chemiosmosis?

The removal of the hydrogen ions from the system also contributes to the ion gradient used in the process of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient.

How is the diffusion of hydrogen ions related to osmosis?

Hydrogen ions, or protons, will diffuse from an area of high proton concentration to an area of lower proton concentration, and an electrochemical concentration gradient of protons across a membrane can be harnessed to make ATP. This process is related to osmosis, the diffusion of water across a membrane,…

Why are transmembrane ATP synthases important in chemiosmotic theory?

Only special membrane proteins like ion channels can sometimes allow ions to move across the membrane (see also: Membrane transport ). In chemiosmotic theory transmembrane ATP synthases are very important. They convert energy of spontaneous flow of protons through them into chemical energy of ATP bonds.

How are hydrogen ions transported through the mitochondrial membrane?

During chemiosmosis, the free energy from the series of reactions that make up the electron transport chain is used to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane, establishing an electrochemical gradient. Hydrogen ions in the matrix space can only pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane through a membrane protein called ATP synthase.