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What is the fine structure of hydrogen atom?

What is the fine structure of hydrogen atom?

When the familiar red spectral line of the hydrogen spectrum is examined at very high resolution, it is found to be a closely-spaced doublet. This splitting is called fine structure and was one of the first experimental evidences for electron spin.

What is fine structure atom?

Fine structure, in spectroscopy, the splitting of the main spectral lines of an atom into two or more components, each representing a slightly different wavelength. Fine structure is produced when an atom emits light in making the transition from one energy state to another.

What is the structure of hydrogen atom?

The hydrogen atom is the simplest of all atoms: it consists of a single proton and a single electron. In addition to the most common form of the hydrogen atom that is called protium, two other isotopes of hydrogen exist: deuterium and tritium.

Who introduced the fine structure of an atom?

As a dimensionless quantity, its numerical value, approximately 1137, is independent of the system of units used. While there are multiple physical interpretations for α, it received its name from Arnold Sommerfeld, who introduced it in 1916, when extending the Bohr model of the atom.

How is degeneracy calculated?

So the degeneracy of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom is n2. For example, the ground state, n = 1, has degeneracy = n2 = 1 (which makes sense because l, and therefore m, can only equal zero for this state).

What is MJ quantum number?

In quantum mechanics, the total angular momentum quantum number parametrises the total angular momentum of a given particle, by combining its orbital angular momentum and its intrinsic angular momentum (i.e., its spin).

What is a fine spectrum?

The fine spectrum is defined as the splitting of spectrum into closely spaced lines. This is observed when H atom is placed in Electrical or Magnetic field.

What is rotational fine structure?

The appearance of rotational fine structure is determined by the symmetry of the molecular rotors which are classified, in the same way as for pure rotational spectroscopy, into linear molecules, spherical-, symmetric- and asymmetric- rotor classes.

Does hydrogen atom have neutron?

Hydrogen has no neutron, deuterium has one, and tritium has two neutrons. The isotopes of hydrogen have, respectively, mass numbers of one, two, and three. The atoms of these isotopes have one electron to balance the charge of the one proton.

Can a hydrogen atom be split?

No – there is only 1 proton in a hydrogen atom and so it can’t be split.

Why is the fine structure constant 137?

In mathematics Using two radii to divide a circle according to the golden ratio yields sectors of approximately 137° (the golden angle) and 222°. 1/137 was once believed to be the exact value of the fine-structure constant.

Why is it called the fine structure constant?

If you modeled a hydrogen atom as Bohr did, but took the ratio of a ground-state electron’s velocity and compared it to the speed of light, you’d get a very specific value, which Sommerfeld called α: the fine structure constant.