What is brain hernia?
Overview. A brain herniation, or cerebral herniation, occurs when brain tissue, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shifts from their normal position inside the skull. The condition is usually caused by swelling from a head injury, stroke, bleeding, or brain tumor.
How many types of brain herniation are there?
Intracranial hernias can be further divided into three types: (a) subfalcine hernia; (b) transtentorial hernia, which can be ascending or descending (lateral and central); and (c) tonsillar hernia.
How are brain herniations classified by their imaging features?
The imaging spectrum can range from subtle changes to clear displacement of brain structures. For radiologists, it is fundamental to be familiar with the different imaging findings of the various subtypes of brain herniation. Brain herniation syndromes are commonly classified on the basis of their
When to see a radiologist for cerebral herniation?
Cerebral herniation is a potentially life-threatening condition that needs to be diagnosed promptly. The imaging spectrum can range from subtle changes to clear displacement of brain structures. The radiologist should be able to identify the main imaging features of the brain herniation subtypes.
When does a person have a brain herniation?
When the self-regulation capacity of the cranium is exceeded and the intracranial pressure exceeds the normal limits, the brain tissue is displaced (because of mass eﬀect) from its normal location to adjacent spaces, which is denominated intracranial herniation or brain herniation.
What kind of brain herniation causes slit like hemorrhages?
Rostrocaudal brain stem deterioration is a type of herniation syndrome observed when downward displacement of the midbrain or pons stretches the medial perforating branches of the basilar artery and causes necrosis and extravasation of blood, with the development of slit-like brain stem hemorrhages named Duret hemorrhages.