What are the complications of ECMO?
The most common complications associated with ECMO were: renal failure requiring continuous venovenous haemofiltration (occurring in 52%), bacterial pneumonia (33%), any bleeding (33%), oxygenator dysfunction requiring replacement (29%), sepsis (26%), haemolysis (18%), liver dysfunction (16%), leg ischaemia (10%).
What is Harlequin syndrome ECMO?
Conclusion: Harlequin syndrome is a known complication of peripheral VA-ECMO, where the upper part of the body is poorly oxygenated. It occurs when the native heart function is preserved but the lungs are poorly functioning. Therapeutic options include converting to central VA-ECMO or VA-V-ECMO.
What is North South Syndrome on ECMO?
Harlequin syndrome, also known as “North–South Syndrome” or “Dual Circulation,” occurs when there is an area of watershed within the aorta where the ECMO oxygenated blood from the femoral artery meets the low oxygenated blood from the impaired lungs, during peripheral VA-ECMO.
How do you wean off ECMO?
When weaning VA ECMO, we recommend weaning at increments of 0.5 liters per minute to 1.0 liter per minute changes when decreasing the flow rates. Flow rates should not drop below 2.0 to 2.5 l/min as this will cause clotting in the cannulas and circuit.
How long can a person be on a ECMO machine?
Most ECMO patients are on the life support machine in an ICU for about nine days, and the average hospital length of stay is more than a month, Haft says. He says there are four primary complications: Clotting that can form on artificial surfaces. Bleeding because patients are given high levels of blood thinners.
Does ECMO regulate blood pressure?
Blood pressure management is crucial for patients on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO). Lower pressure can lead to end-organ malperfusion, whereas higher pressure may compete with ECMO flow and cardiac output.
What artery is used for ECMO?
The most common artery used for peripheral VA-ECMO is the femoral artery.
Are you intubated during ECMO?
Patients who are on ECMO are already connected to a ventilator (breathing machine) through a tube (endotracheal or ET tube) that is placed in the mouth or nose and down into the windpipe. They are thus intubated.