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How microbes can be used for degradation of xenobiotic?

How microbes can be used for degradation of xenobiotic?

Microorganisms potentially utilize xenobiotic contaminants as carbon or nitrogen sources to sustain their growth and metabolic activities. Diverse microbial populations survive in harsh contaminated environments, exhibiting a significant biodegradation potential to degrade and transform pollutants.

Which is important in xenobiotics degradation?

In other words, defined as the ability of microorganisms to convert toxic chemicals (xenobiotics) to simpler non-toxic compounds by synthesis of certain enzymes • Biodegradation of xenobiotics can be affected by substrate specificity, nutrition source, temperature, pH etc. …

Which organism is involved in xenobiotic degradation?

Fungi, and aerobic as well as anaerobic bacteria are involved in the degradation of xenobiotics. Sometimes these microbial transformation processes are fortuitous, a phenomenon that is not uncommon in microbiology.

What is bioremediation of xenobiotics?

The term ‘bioremediation’ means transformation of a chemical compound from highly complicated form (organic) to simple (inorganic) form through biological means. Xenobiotics are the chemical compounds, which are manufactured by human and their degradation is not possible.

Why are xenobiotics harmful?

Limited data showed the potential reproductive and developmental toxicity caused by swainsonine. The swainsonine caused reproductive and developmental toxicity in both parents and offspring mice. It suggests that severe reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity are associated with swainsonine poisoning.

What are the sources of xenobiotics?

Xenobiotics in the environment Some of the main sources of pollution and the introduction of xenobiotics into the environment come from large industries such as pharmaceuticals, fossil fuels, pulp and paper bleaching and agriculture.

Is xenobiotic harmful?

What are the effects of xenobiotics?

Immunotoxic effects include immunosuppression and immunostimulation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. Infections and lymphoproliferative disorders have been associated with the use of immunosuppressive drugs, whereas infections have seldom been associated with chemical exposure.

What are the characteristics of xenobiotics?

Xenobiotics have been defined as chemicals to which an organism is exposed that are extrinsic to the normal metabolism of that organism. Without metabolism, many xenobiotics would reach toxic concentrations. Most metabolic activity inside the cell requires energy, cofactors, and enzymes in order to occur.

How are xenobiotics used in the biodegradation process?

Degradation of many xenobiotic chemicals requires microbial communities. Some xenobiotics, however, appear to resist microbial attack. In the near future, the collective knowledge in the field of microbial degradation may enable scientists to establish rules to predict the biodegradability and the biodegradation pathways of xenobiotic compounds.

How are xenobiotic compounds harmful to the environment?

These substitutions make them recalcitrant. The xenobiotics present a number of potential hazards to man and the environment which are briefly listed below. Many xenobiotics like halogenated and aromatic hycrocarbons are toxic to bacteria, lower eukaryotes and even humans.

Where are xenobiotics found in the food chain?

These compounds enter the environment as components of pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides. Many toxic xenobiotics are progressively more concentrated in each link of a food chain, a process called bio-magnification (Fig. 9.3). Microbial degradation of xenobiotics has been thoroughly studied.

How are xenobiotics used in the real world?

• Xenobiotics are those chemicals which are man-made and do not occur naturally in nature. • They are usually synthesized for industrial or agricultural purposes e.g. aromatics, pesticides, hydrocarbons, plastics , lignin etc. • They are also called RECALCITRANTS as they can resist degradation to maximum level.