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How do you cross pollinate sorghum?

How do you cross pollinate sorghum?

Sorghum is primarily self-pollinated, meaning that a sorghum plant will accept pollen from its own flowers. Sorghum can also accept pollen from other sorghum plants (cross-pollination) by means of wind or insect transfer (note the bee on the sorghum head in Fig. 3).

What is crossing and selfing?

Selfing and crossing are the essential procedures in crop improvement process. The exact procedures used to ensure self or cross-pollination of specific plants will depend on the floral structure and normal manner of pollination.

Why sorghum is often cross pollinated?

Sorghum is normally self-pollinated but some florets are protogyny resulting in cross pollination averaging about 6%. So, it is classified as often cross- pollinated. The cross pollination is more in loose panicles than in compact ones.

What are the characteristics of sorghum?

Sorghum is a strong grass and usually grows to a height of 0.6 to 2.4 metres (2 to 8 feet), sometimes reaching as high as 4.6 metres (15 feet). Stalks and leaves are coated with a white wax, and the pith, or central portion, of the stalks of certain varieties is juicy and sweet.

Will sorghum cross pollinate with corn?

Sorghum seed needs soil temperatures of 60-65°F for good emergence. Three characteristics of sorghum give it a potential advantage over corn in dry areas: Corn is cross-pollinated. Severe drought at silking time may cause barren ears (no kernels).

Is the root parasite of sorghum?

Sorghum affected by Striga Unlike other weeds, which compete for water and nutrients Striga, as a root parasite, literally sucks the life out of sorghum plants.

Why is selfing more common in plants?

Many plant species have established self-sustaining populations outside their natural range because of human activities. Plants with selfing ability should be more likely to establish outside their historical range because they can reproduce from a single individual when mates or pollinators are not available.

How does selfing increase homozygosity?

In theory, selfing increases homozygosity at a rate of 0.50 per generation. Increased homozygosity can uncover recessive deleterious variants and lead to inbreeding depression, unless it is countered by the loss of these variants by genetic purging.

Why Pearl millet is cross pollinated?

Pearl millet is a highly cross-pollinated species. Wind is supposed to be the major cross pollinating agent. However, insects also effect cross pollination. Protogyny and the time lag between stigma emergence and anther dehiscence favor cross pollination, but asynchronous flowering prevents its full realization.

What is sorghum grown for?

Sorghum is used for food, fodder, and the production of alcoholic beverages. It is drought-tolerant and heat-tolerant, and is especially important in arid regions. It is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the “fifth most important cereal crop grown in the world”.

What are the different types of sorghum?

Grain Sorghum There are various types of sorghum including red, orange, bronze, tan, white, and black colored sorghum. Red, orange or bronze sorghum is traditionally grown and is used in all segments of the sorghum industry.

What is sorghum used for?

How is sorghum used? In the United States, and other countries across the globe, sorghum grain is primarily used for livestock feed and ethanol production, but is becoming popular in the consumer food industry and other emerging markets.

Is the sorghum plant suitable for cross pollination?

Sorghum, considered as often cross-pollinated crop where cross-pollination ranges from 5% to 15% with an average of about 6% ( Poehlman, 1987 ), is suitable to exploit breeding procedures applicable for both self- and cross-pollinated crops.

Why are selfing and crossing important in crop breeding?

Selfing and crossing are essential in crop breeding. It is important that the breeder, master these techniques in order to manipulate the pollination according to his needs. The exact procedure that he may use to ensure self or cross pollination of specific plants will depend on the particular species with which he is working.

What are the different breeding methods for sorghum?

Breeders have used different conventional selection and breeding schemes for sorghum improvement. These are mass selection, pure-line selection, pedigree method, bulk method, backcross method, single seed descent (SSD) method, etc. Choice of the scheme of selection depends on the proposed objectives and breeding material handled.

Why is it important to use selfing and crossing?

In the selfing of cross-pollinated species, it is essential that the flower are bagged or otherwise protected to prevent natural cross-pollination. Selfing and crossing are essential in crop breeding. It is important that the breeder, master these techniques in order to manipulate the pollination according to his needs.